A HUMAN SKELETON FROM SOUTHEASTERN ARIZONA

In January, 1970, a human skeleton with associated mane and metate fragments was recovered by Mr. Herb Reay of Douglas. The burial site (Ariz. EE:12:1) was located near Hereford, approximately 60 miles west of the Arizona-New Mexico border and less than 10 miles north of the International Boundary. Excavation of the grave, which was indicated on the surface by a concentration of small pebbles, disclosed a human interment at a depth of two feet. The broken manes and metates had apparently been included incidently in the grave fill. There were no other artifacts. The grinding implements were identified by C. C. DiPeso (pers. comm.) as belonging to either the Chiricahua or San Pedro Phase of the Cochise Culture. Notes, bones and artifacts are in the possession of R. D. Myers, Cochise College, Douglas, Arizona.

The bones of the burial were very well preserved and solid, but showed many fresh fractures with missing parts. The identifiable fragments present indicated that the skeleton was probably complete when discovered. Stains on the bones indicated that the skeleton lay in the grave on its left side.
Age: 18-24. The epiphyses of the long bone were attached, but some retained an indistinct line of fusion suggesting recent closure. All four third molars had erupted. The basi-occipital joint and the pubic symphysis, both useful age indicators, were missing. All the cranial sutures were open.
Sex: Female. The orbital rims were sharp, with only a trace of a supraorbital ridge. The frontal boss was single, and the frontal sinuses small. The mastoids were also small. The body of the mandible was of medium height, and the gonial angles slightly obtuse. The post-cranial skeleton as well as the skull were quite gracile. The maximum diameter of the right femoral head was only 39 mm. No part of the pelvis diagnostic of sex was present.
Stature: Lack of restoreable long bones precluded any estimate of stature.
Osseus Pathology: There was no evidence of pathology or mechanical trauma in the bones present except that discussed under the dentition. There was no evidence of the cause of death.

Dentition: All but one of the adult teeth were present at the time of death. The 16 adult maxillary teeth remained in their sockets (fig. 1), but three mandibular teeth were lost postmortem. These were the right lateral incisor, canine and second premolar. The mandibular first molar had been lost shortly antemortem.

Gingival pathology was indicated by resorption of the alveolar process partially exposing the tooth roots throughout the maxilla, and to a much lesser extent in the mandible. No caries or abscesses were present in the maxilla, but the lower right first molar had been lost not long before death due to an abscess which showed slight evidence of healing. The distal half of the crown of the left second mandibular molar had been destroyed by caries, and a small abscess was present with an outlet at the neck of the tooth buccally.
All of the maxillary incisors showed three-quarter double shoveling except the anomalous right lateral (see below) which was shoveled only on the lingual surface. The mandibular incisors exhibited shoveling on the lingual surfaces with double shoveling of the central pair.
Crowding of teeth was evident in both jaws with some displacement lingually of the left lateral mandibular incisor. The placement of the socket suggested the same condition existed on the right side. The maxillary left lateral incisor was displaced lingually from the dental arcade (fig. 1). The right was normal. Hypoplastic lines were present near the crown-root border of the maxillary lateral incisors and the left mandibular canine (right missing) suggesting a growth disturbance, possibly an acute illness, near the age of 3-4 years. There was no mottling to suggest flouridosis.

Cranial Morphology: (Fig. 2). The left temporal and parietal were detached from the rest of the cranium and were cracked and warped. The remainder of the skull appeared to be undistorted.
The vault and face were small and gracile, with only very slight muscle markings. There was moderate alveolar prognathism. The nasal sill was rounded. There was no nasal root depression, and only a suggestion of a glabellar prominence. The suborbital fossae were moderate in depth, with single infra-orbital foramina. Both a supraorbital notch and foramen were present on both sides. The zygomatic foramen was double on the right side but unobservable on the left. There was a small but definite “mound” palatine torus. The artiCUlation at pterion was spheno-parietal on both sides with no epipteric bones. There were no wormian bones in any of the cranial sutures, at asterion, or in the parietal notch, nor was there an Inca Bone. There was no distinct saggital keel although the parietals met to form a peak. There was a small occipital bun. The obelionic area was relatively flat, but not deformed. There was no postcoronal depression. No observations could be made on the cranial base due to damage to the bone in that region.

The mandible was gracile with only a trace of gonial eversion. The mental foramina were single and the chin square. A very slight mandibular torus was present bilaterally.
The maximum length of the skull was 166 mm with an estimated breadth of 132 mm, producing an approximate cranial index of 80. Basion-bregma height was estimated to be 130 mm. The minimum frontal breadth was 89 mm and the upper facial height was 61 mm. The bicondylar diameter of the mandible was 107 mm, the bigonial 87 mm, and the height of the symphysis was 32 mm.
Post-cranial Morphology: The fragmentary nature of the postcranial skeleton did not permit any measurements. In general, it may be noted again that the bones were markedly gracile.
Discussion: The few metric observations that could be taken on the EE:12:1 skull were compared (tables 1 and 2) to females of series defined by Seltzer (’44) as belonging to the Southwest Plateau physical type, and to Brues’ (’46) San Simon type. The EE:12:1 skull fell outside the range of the San Simon skulls in two measurements and one index, possibly due to the cranial deformation of the latter. However, the gracile Cochise skull did not match Brues’ description of the moderately robust San Simon females.
The measurements and indices of the EE:12:1 skull were included within the range of all the Southwest Plateau groups, and in five of six cases most nearly matched the means of undeformed Salt River females.

The measurements and indices of the EE:12:1 skull were included within the range of all the Southwest Plateau groups, and in five of six cases most nearly matched the means of undeformed Salt River females.
In shape, the Cochise skull did not resemble the series of Salt River Valley skulls illustrated by Matthews, Wortman and Billings (’93) whose measurements were used in the comparison above. It did, however, resemble in many features other early crania from throughout the United States (Angel, ’66; Renaud, ’27; Smith, ’41; Woodbury and Woodbury, ’35; Snow, ’48; Stewart, ’46; Jenks, ’37; etc.). These features included a high, narrow vault; some degree of occipital bun; obelionic flattening and alveolar prognathism.

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